Citations

Cite correctly

An important part of the research process is compiling a bibliography—a list of sources consulted—and citing those sources. The main reason for citing sources is to give credit to the authors whose ideas you have used in your research paper. Citing your sources also allows readers of your work to build on your research by finding the sources to which you’ve referred. Finally, if you don’t cite the sources upon which your research is based, you will be guilty of the most ignoble academic sin: Plagiarism.

Elements of a Citation

Regardless of the citation style you use (see Citation Styles and Style Manuals), there are certain elements common to all citations. Therefore, keep track of the following as you locate and gather research materials:

Books
Author (or editor); Title; and Publishing information (City, Publisher, Year of publication)
Articles
Author(s); Title of article; Title of journal or magazine; Volume and Date of periodical; and Page number(s) of article

If you access information via the Web, also record the address of the Web site (or online database you used) and the date you accessed the site or database.

APA Citation

The following sample citations show the format for the References list placed at the end of a paper. If a source you have used differs from the samples, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. The Manual can also be consulted for intricate rules concerning in-text citation. Copies are available in Permanent Reserves and at the Research Help Desk in Kennedy Library, room 111. Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2010 (Ref).

Articles (print)

Article in a journal (From APA 6th ed., p. 199)
Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.
Article in a newspaper (Following APA 6th ed., p. 200)
Woods, C. (2011, October 24). The development of environmental consciousness in the United States. The Washington Psychic, pp. A2, A5.

Books (print)

Basic format for a book (Following APA 6th ed., p. 203)
Zabar, A. (1989). Alphabet soup. New York, NY: Stewart, Tabori, & Chang, Inc.
Book with an editor (Following APA 6th ed., p. 202)
Aspinwall, L. G. & Staudinger, U. M. (Eds.). (2002). A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Numbered edition other than the first (Following APA 6th ed., p. 205)
Arbold, R. (2003). The biology of lying: Observations and principles (4th ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Article or chapter in an edited book or an anthology (Following APA 6th ed., p. 202)
O’Clair, K. M. (1995). Demonstrating cultural sensitivity in field research. In M. Miller & A. J. Kennedy (Eds.), Principles of applied research (pp. 15-68). New York, NY: Sage.
Dictionary or other reference work (Following APA 6th ed., p. 204)
Gamble, L. T. (Ed.). (2001). Encyclopedia of teaching (Vols. 1-4). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Online sources

Article in an online magazine (Following APA 6th ed., p. 200)
Blue, R. U. (2008, June). Sad vs. depressed: Psychologists facilitate awareness about mental health symptoms. Monitor on Psychology, 24(3). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/
Article in an online newspaper (Following APA 6th ed., p. 200)
Kline, D. (2005, October 15). A balanced diet in youth wards off Alzheimer’s Disease in later life. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com
Electronic version of print book (Following APA 6th ed., p. 203)
Shell, S. P. (1989). Fuel consumption in the United States. [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebooks.com/

Citing from a database

Article from a database with DOI (Following APA 6th ed., p. 198)
Worthy, K. D., & Winkler, G. I. (2002). The keys of successful conflict resolution: Creativity, calm, and cooperation. Happy Helper Psychology, 14, 114-222. doi: 13.1038/2178= 6533.14.2.235
Article from a database with no DOI (Following APA 6th ed., p. 198)
Parks, A. R., & Lucas, A. E. (2007). Early attachment pattern predicts later relational investment. Journal of Marriage and Family Psychology, 4(4), 12- 32. Retrieved from http://www.jmft.net/

Senior Projects

Cal Poly Senior Projects prior to Fall 2009 are available on microfiche, and should be cited as in the first example below. Senior Projects from Fall 2009 and later are digitally hosted on the institutional repository (DigitalCommons@CalPoly) and should follow the second example.

Before Fall 2009 (Following APA 6th ed., p. 207)
Gold, T. (1999). Library usage and student GPA: The missing link to academic success. (Unpublished senior project). California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.
Fall 2009 to the present (Following APA 6th ed., p. 208)
Lossing, C. B. (2010). Childhood obesity: Prevention & intervention. (Senior project, California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/psycdsp/10/

MLA Citation

The following sample citations show the format for the Works Cited list placed at the end of a paper. If a source you have used differs from the samples, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition. The MLA Handbook can also be consulted for intricate rules concerning in-text citation. Copies are available in Permanent Reserves and at the Research Help Desk in Kennedy Library, room 111. Call Number: LB2369 .G53 2009 (Ref).

MLA calls for hanging indentation, as seen in the examples, and the entire list should be double-spaced, both within and between entries (MLA Handbook, 7th ed., p. 131).

7th Edition MLA standards require explicit format information. For most citations this will be simply Print or Web.

Articles (print)

Article in a journal (Following MLA 7th ed., p. 137)
Doe, Jane. “Incidental Toxins and Deer Mortality in Central Park.” Pesticides and Urban Ungulates 44.12 (2005): 21-35. Print.
Article in a magazine (Following MLA 7th ed., p. 143)
Doe, John. “Welders Unite the Nation.” Aviation Weekly 7 Dec. 1941:26-28. Print.
Article in a newspaper (Following MLA, 7th ed., p. 142)
Friedkin, Blair. “Delicious Recipe for Exorcism Soup.” New York Times 31 Oct. 1974: D1. Print.

Books (print)

Book by single author (Following MLA 7th ed., p.149)
Hoffa, James. Solid Cement Mortuary Designs. New York: East River Press, 2009. Print.
Book by two or more authors (From MLA 7th ed. p. 154)
Broer, Lawrence R., and Gloria Holland. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002. Print.
Book with editor (From MLA 7th ed., p. 153)
Lestat, Fred., ed. Nightmares of the Sun and Infinity: An Anthology of Vampire Anxiety Dreams. Pennsylvania: Pallid Press, 2009. Print.
Chapter in an edited book (Following MLA 7th ed., p. 158)
Farrier, Sharon. “Rowing in the Sticks.” Transcendental Transport. Ed. Johan Faust and Dan Webster. Providence: Pandemonium Press, 2008. 11-32. Print.

Citing from a database

Journal article in online database (Following MLA 7th ed., p. 193)
Doe, Jane. “Reading to Possums in Central Park.” Poetry and Urban Wildlife 44.12(2008): 21-35. JSTOR. Web. 5 May 2010.
Magazine article in an online database (From MLA 7th ed., p. 193)
France, Anatole. “Pour la Paix, pour la Liberté.” New Age 5 Sept. 1907:297-98. The Modernist Journals Project. Web. 5 June 2007.

Citing from a work found only on the web.

The examples below are for works found ONLY on the web. For works cited on the web that also have related print versions, or versions in other formats, refer to the MLA Handbook, pp. 187-190).

News article with author (From MLA 7th ed., p. 186)
Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops Behind Enemy Lines.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007. Web. 15 May 2008.
News article without author (From MLA 7th ed., p. 186)
“Utah Mine Rescue Funeral.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 21 Aug. 2007. Web. 21 Aug. 2007.
Web home page with no date (From MLA 7th ed., p. 186)
Liu, Alan, ed. Home page. Voice of the Shuttle. Dept. of English, U of California, Santa Barbara, n.d. Web. 15 May 2008.

Senior Projects

Cal Poly Senior Projects prior to Fall 2009 are available on microfiche, and should be cited as in the first example below. Senior Projects from Fall 2009 and later are digitally hosted on the institutional repository (DigitalCommons@CalPoly) and should follow the second example.

Before Fall 2009 (Following MLA 7th ed., p. 180 and p. 207)
Garcia, Hector. “To Be and Not to Be: Quantum Politics in the New Millenium.” Senior project, California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, 2001. Microform.
Fall 2009 to the present (Following MLA 7th ed., p. 187)
Cunningham, Tierney, “An Abridged Visual History of Graphic Design.” Senior project, California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, 2009. DigitalCommons@Calpoly. Web. 21 Aug. 2010.

Turabian Citation

The following sample citations show both the note form and the bibliography form. The numbers preceding the note examples are arbitrarily chosen but are included to show where the numbers should be placed. If a source you have used differs from the samples, consult Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th Edition. Copies are available in Permanent Reserves and at the Research Help Desk in Kennedy room 111. Call number: LB2369 .T8 2007(Ref).

Articles (print)


Article in a journal (Following Turabian 7th ed., p.182)First note form:
1. Jane Doe, “Incidental Toxins and Deer Mortality in Central Park,” Pesticides and Urban
Ungulates 44
, no. 12 (June 2008): 26.

Bibliography:
Doe, Jane. “Incidental Toxins and Deer Mortality in Central Park.” Pesticides and Urban Ungulates
44, no. 12 (June 2005): 21-35.

Article in a magazine (Following Turabian 7th ed. p. 186)

First note form:
2. John Doe, “Welders Unite the Nation,” Aviation Weekly, December 7, 1941, 21.

Bibliography:
Doe, John. “Welders Unite the Nation.” Aviation Weekly. December 7, 1941.

Article in a newspaper (Following Turabian, 7th ed. p. 187)

First note form:
3. Blair Friedkin, “Delicious recipe for exorcism soup,” New York Times, October 31, 1974.

Bibliography:
According to Turabian, daily news articles generally do not need to be included in the bibliography
(7th ed., 186). The title in the citation can use headline or sentence-style capitalization (7th ed., p. 187).

Books (print)


Book, single Author (Following Turabian 7th ed., p.163)First note form:
4. James Hoffa, Solid Cement Mortuary Designs (New York:East River Press, 2009), 86.

Bibliography:
Hoffa, James. Solid Cement Mortuary Designs. New York: East River Press, 2009.

Book with editor (From Turabian 7th ed., p. 164)

First note form:
1. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 35.

Bibliography:
Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolph.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Chapter in an edited book (Following Turabian 7th ed., p.179)

First note form:
2. Sharon Ferryman, “Rowing in the Sticks,” in Transcendental Transport, ed. Johnny Faust
and Dan Webster (Demopolis, AL: Pandemonium Press, 2008), 13.

Bibliography:
Ferryman, Sharon. “Rowing in the Sticks.” in Transcendental Transport, edited by Johnny Faust and
Dan Webster, 11-32. Demopolis, AL: Pandemonium Press, 2008.

Citing from a database


Newspaper article, online database (Following Turabian 7th ed., p. 186)First note form:
3. Blair Friedkin, “Delicious recipe for exorcism soup,” New York Times, October 31, 1974,
http://search.ebscohostfromsheol.com/login=true&wtf =perdita.n.d.s.n.live (accessed October 31,2010).

Journal article, online database (Following Turabian 7th ed., p. 185)

First note form:
1. Jane Doe, “Incidental Toxins and Deer Mortality in CentralPark,” Pesticides and Urban
Ungulates 44, no. 12 (June 2008):
26,http:www.scienceindirect.com/urbscarnage/article2whatrhooves4?(accessed May 5, 2001).

Bibliography:
Doe, Jane. “Incidental Toxins and Deer Mortality in Central Park.” Pesticides and Urban Ungulates
44, no. 12 (June 2008): 21-35.
http:www.scienceindirect.com/urbscarnage/article2whatrhooves4? (accessed May 5, 2001).

Web site (From Turabian 7th ed., p. 198)

First note form:
2. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-
2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-
00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

Bibliography:
Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A
Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html
(accessed June 1, 2005).

Senior Projects


Cal Poly Senior Projects prior to Fall 2009 are available on microfiche, and should be cited as in the first two examples below. Senior Projects from Fall 2009 and later are digitally hosted on the institutional repository and should follow the second pair of examples below. (Following Turabian 7th ed., p. 194)Before 2009

First note form:
3. Hector Garcia, “To Be and Not to Be: Quantum Politics in the New Millenium” (senior
project, California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, 2001), 12.

Bibliography:
Garcia, Hector. “To Be and Not to Be: Quantum Politics in the New Millenium.” Senior project,
California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, 2001.

Fall 2009 to the present

First note form:
4. Tierney Cunningham, “An Abridged Visual History of Graphic Design” (senior project,
California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, 2009), 12, in DigitalCommons@CalPoly,
http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/artsp/29 (accessed August 17, 2010).

Bibliography:
Cunningham, Tierney, “An Abridged Visual History of Graphic Design.” Senior project, California
Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 2009. In DigitalCommons@CalPoly,
http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/artsp/29/ (accessed August 17, 2010).

Assistance

For assistance with any aspect of citing sources, please seek assistance at the Research Help Desk, tel. 756-2649.

Write an annotated bibliography

What is an annotated bibliography

Description
  • A bibliography, sometimes referred to as References or Works Cited, is an organized list of sources (e.g., books, journal/magazine articles, Web sites, etc.) consulted in the research process.
  • Each source in the bibliography is represented by a citation that includes the author (if given), title, and publication details of the source.
  • An annotated bibliography is a bibliography with an additional description or evaluation (i.e., annotation) of each source.
Purpose
The purpose of the annotation is to help the reader evaluate whether the work cited is relevant to a specific research topic or line of inquiry.

Annotations versus abstracts

Abstracts
Abstracts are brief statements that present the main points of the original work. They normally do not include an evaluation of the work itself.
Annotations
Annotations could be descriptive or evaluative, or a combination of both. A descriptive annotation summarizes the scope and content of a work whereas an evaluative annotation provides critical comment.

What the annotation includes

Generally, annotations should be no more than 150 words (or 4-6 sentences long). They should be concise and well-written. Depending on your assignment, annotations may include some or all of the following information:

  • Main focus or purpose of the work
  • Intended audience for the work
  • Usefulness or relevance to your research topic (or why it did not meet your expectations)
  • Special features of the work that were unique or helpful
  • Background and credibility of the author
  • Conclusions or observations reached by the author
  • Conclusions or observations reached by you

Which citation style to use

There are many style manuals with specific instructions on how to format your annotated bibliography. The style you use may depend on your subject discipline or the preference of your instructor. Whatever the format, be consistent with the same style throughout the bibliography.

Consult our guide on how to cite correctly for examples of how to format citations in different styles such as the MLA, APA, Chicago.

Sample citations and annotations

Below are 2 sample annotations (The citations are in APA Style and are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition.)

Book citation example with brief descriptive annotation (APA)

Liroff, R. A., & G. G. Davis. (1981). Protecting open space: Land use control in the Adirondack Park. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

This book describes the implementation of regional planning and land use regulation in the Adirondack Park in upstate New York. The authors provide program evaluations of the Adirondack Park Agency’s regulatory and local planning assistance programs.

Journal article citation example with evaluative annotation (APA)

Gottlieb, P. D. (1995). The “golden egg” as a natural resource: Toward a normative theory of growth management. Society and Natural Resources, 8, (5): 49-56.

This article explains the dilemma faced by North American suburbs, which demand both preservation of local amenities (to protect quality of life) and physical development (to expand the tax base). Growth management has been proposed as a policy solution to this dilemma. An analogy is made between this approach and resource economics. The author concludes that the growth management debate raises legitimate issues of sustainability and efficiency.

 

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